Even for people who are never incarcerated, collateral consequences that move from their arrests and convictions—comparable to lost jobs, ineligibility for public housing, suspended driver’s licenses, and restrictions on entry to federal pupil loans—can considerably derail their lives. In 1993, the Court curtailed civil forfeiture laws by ruling that confiscation of property is topic to the Eighth Amendment’s protections towards extreme fines (Austin v. United States, 509 U.S. 602, 113 S. Ct. 2801, a hundred twenty five L. Ed. 2nd 488).
Most states have basic prohibitions towards the obtaining of medication by way of fraud, deceit, or misrepresentation that date back as far as the Uniform Narcotic Drug Act of 1932 and the Managed Substances Act of 1970 17. These are broad prohibitions intended to cowl a variety of dangerous actors—sufferers, physicians, or persons promoting medication for profit 17. In addition to bans and penalties for fraud, no less than 43 states have prescription drug monitoring applications (PDMPs), most funded by the federal authorities’s Division of Justice, that monitor who’s writing and filling prescriptions in an effort to flag fraudulent activity 18. There are additionally large-ranging laws that attempt to put authorized limits on the amount of controlled substance prescribed, … Read More